What Human Food Can Horses Eat

Horses are majestic creatures with specific dietary needs, and as horse owners, we want to ensure that they are receiving the best nutrition possible. While horses primarily feed on hay, grass, and grains, some human foods can be safely incorporated into their diet.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the human foods that horses can eat, including:

  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • grains
  • nuts and seeds
  • dairy products
  • meat and fish
  • herbs and spices

We will also delve into the benefits and risks of feeding human foods to horses, and the quantities that should be provided. We will discuss the foods that should be avoided at all costs, such as:

  • chocolate
  • avocado
  • onions
  • garlic
  • caffeine
  • alcohol
  • xylitol

By the end of this article, you will have a thorough understanding of what human foods are safe and beneficial for horses, and how to incorporate them into their diet responsibly.

Key Takeaways:

  • Some human foods are safe for horses to eat, but should only be given in moderation.
  • Fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds, dairy products, meat and fish, herbs and spices are all safe for horses to eat.
  • Horses should avoid consuming chocolate, avocado, onions and garlic, caffeine, alcohol, and xylitol as they can be harmful to their health.
  • What Is Safe For Horses To Eat?

    Knowing what is safe for horses to eat is crucial for every horse owner and horse people. It is essential to maintain a balanced and healthy horse diet.

    Horses have a natural grazing habit, so their diet primarily consists of forages such as hay and pasture grasses. High-quality hay should be the foundation of a horse’s diet, providing essential fiber and nutrients. Horses can consume grains and concentrates as part of their diet, including oats, barley, and specialized horse feeds. It’s crucial to feed them in appropriate quantities to avoid digestive issues. Fresh, clean water is also vital for maintaining proper hydration. When offering treats, opt for healthy options such as apples, carrots, and alfalfa cubes to avoid causing dietary imbalances or potential health problems.

    What Human Foods Can Horses Eat?

    Horses can safely consume various human foods, including fruits, vegetables, and grains, as part of their balanced diet and occasional treats.


    Fruits such as apples, bananas, and berries can be excellent treats for horses, providing essential nutrients and natural sweetness as part of their diet.

    Apples are a great source of vitamins and minerals for horses, especially vitamin C and dietary fiber. It’s important to remove the seeds and core before feeding them to horses, and a recommended serving size is about one to two medium-sized apples per day.

    Bananas can offer potassium, which is beneficial for muscle function, and they are also a good source of energy. For horses, a half to one banana can be given as a treat occasionally.

    Berries, such as strawberries and blueberries, are rich in antioxidants and can support overall health. It’s advisable to feed them in moderation, usually a handful of berries as an occasional treat for horses.


    Vegetables such as carrots, peas, and zucchini can serve as healthy and safe options for horses, adding variety and essential nutrients to their diet.

    Carrots are rich in Vitamin A, beneficial for equine eye health while peas provide a good source of protein and fiber. Zucchini, on the other hand, contains essential vitamins and minerals like Vitamin C and potassium. These vegetables can be chopped or grated, making it easier for horses to consume. It is recommended to introduce a new vegetable slowly to prevent any digestive upset and to ensure that it is well tolerated. Including a variety of vegetables in a horse’s diet, 2-3 times a week, can contribute to their overall well-being and nutritional balance.


    Grains such as oats, flour, and oatmeal can provide horses with essential carbohydrates and energy, supporting their dietary needs and overall well-being.

    Additionally, barley and corn are commonly used grains in equine diets, offering a rich source of energy. These grains also contain protein, fiber, and essential nutrients, which are beneficial for the horse’s muscle development and digestion.

    When serving grains to horses, it is crucial to ensure appropriate portions to avoid overfeeding, which can lead to health issues such as colic and laminitis. Many horse owners opt for a balanced feed that includes a well-measured amount of grains to meet the horse’s nutritional requirements.

    Nuts and Seeds

    Nuts and seeds like peanut butter, cinnamon, and honey can be included in a horse’s diet in moderation, providing beneficial fats and essential nutrients.

    When considering the role of nuts and seeds in a horse’s diet, it’s important to note that they offer a rich source of healthy fats, protein, vitamins, and minerals that can contribute to the overall well-being of the animal.

    For example, peanut butter can supply healthy fats and protein, while cinnamon provides antioxidant properties, and honey offers natural sweetness and potential anti-inflammatory benefits.

    It’s recommended to incorporate a small portion of nuts and seeds into a horse’s diet, typically as part of treats or supplements, to avoid overfeeding or potential digestive issues.

    A tablespoon of peanut butter, a sprinkling of cinnamon, or a touch of honey can be a delightful addition to their meals, providing diverse nutrients and enhancing their enjoyment of the feed.

    Dairy Products

    Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt should be approached with caution when considering them as potential treats for horses due to their lactose content.

    While many horses may enjoy the taste of dairy products, their digestive systems are not designed to efficiently process lactose. Lactose intolerance can lead to digestive upset, diarrhea, and discomfort for the horse. Therefore, it’s essential to consider alternative treats that are safe and healthy for equine consumption.

    Carrots, apples, and molasses treats can serve as excellent alternatives, providing essential nutrients and natural sweetness without the potential risks associated with dairy products.

    Meat and Fish

    While horses are herbivores, small amounts of lean meat and fish can be offered as occasional sources of protein, provided in a suitable and safe manner.

    When considering adding meat and fish to a horse’s diet, it’s crucial to prioritize their safety and overall well-being. The meat should be lean and well-cooked to eliminate any potential risks of parasites or bacteria. Similarly, fish should be thoroughly cooked, boneless, and free from any seasoning or additives that could be harmful to the horse.

    When sourcing the meat and fish, it’s essential to opt for high-quality, fresh products from reputable sources. Avoid processed or seasoned meats, and prioritize organic or locally sourced options whenever feasible.

    When serving meat or fish to a horse, moderation is key. Small, controlled portions should be integrated into their diet gradually, ensuring that the additions complement their existing nutritional intake without leading to any digestive issues.

    Herbs and Spices

    Herbs and spices such as peppermint, cinnamon, and food coloring can provide flavor and variety in horse treats, enhancing their palatability and appeal.

    When choosing herbs and spices for horse treats, it’s important to consider their potential benefits. Peppermint, for example, not only adds a refreshing taste but can also aid in digestion for the horses. Cinnamon, with its warm and aromatic flavor, is known for its natural anti-inflammatory properties, making it a beneficial addition to treats, particularly for horses with joint discomfort or stiffness. Natural food coloring derived from herbs like turmeric or beetroot can add visual appeal without the artificial additives. It’s essential to carefully select herbs and spices that are safe for equine consumption, keeping in mind any potential allergies or sensitivities they may have. Integrating a variety of these natural flavors can help keep the horses engaged and satisfied with their treats.

    Other Human Foods That Are Safe For Horses

    Along with fruits, vegetables, and grains, horses can safely consume treats such as peanut butter, raisins, and cheerios in moderation as part of their dietary variety.

    Apart from the mentioned treats, offering carrots, apples, and bananas can also provide a nutritional boost to horses. Carrots, full of beta-carotene, are a popular choice and can help enhance their eyesight. Apples, when offered in small chunks, not only serve as a natural breath freshener but also offer a refreshing taste. Bananas, rich in potassium, can help in maintaining proper muscle function.

    It’s important to note that treats should only make up a small portion of a horse’s diet. Portion control is crucial to prevent obesity and other health issues. A general guideline is not to exceed a total of 2 pounds of treats per day for an average-sized adult horse. It’s best to consult with a veterinarian or equine nutritionist to determine the appropriate treat options and portion sizes based on the horse’s individual needs.

    What Human Foods Should Horses Avoid?

    There are specific human foods that are potentially dangerous for horses, including chocolate, avocado, onions, and garlic, which should be avoided to prevent potential health risks.

    Chocolate contains theobromine and caffeine, which can cause increased heart rate, tremors, seizures, and even death in horses.

    Avocados contain persin, a fatty acid derivative that can cause heart and respiratory issues in horses.

    Onions and garlic can lead to anemia and digestive problems due to their toxic compounds.

    It’s crucial for horse owners to be mindful of these toxic foods and ensure that their equine companions do not have access to them, as the ingestion of these foods can lead to severe health complications.


    Chocolate contains theobromine, a compound that poses significant toxicity risks to horses, making it crucial to keep all forms of chocolate away from equine consumption.

    The theobromine in chocolate can cause theobromine toxicity in horses if ingested, resulting in a range of symptoms such as increased heart rate, seizures, and muscle tremors. It’s essential for horse owners and caretakers to be aware of these potential dangers and ensure that chocolate is stored securely out of reach of these animals. If a horse does accidentally consume chocolate, seeking immediate veterinary care is crucial to prevent further complications and provide necessary intervention.


    The presence of persin in avocados can lead to severe cardiac issues and toxicity in horses, necessitating strict avoidance of avocados in their dietary options.

    When horses consume avocados, the persin can cause a variety of adverse effects. These can range from mild gastrointestinal upset to more severe symptoms like colic, difficulty breathing, and potential damage to the heart muscle. The risk of toxicity increases with the amount of avocado ingested. It’s important for horse owners and caregivers to be aware of these risks and ensure that avocados are completely excluded from the equine diet to safeguard their health and well-being.

    Onions and Garlic

    Onions and garlic contain disulfides that can result in severe anemia and toxicity in horses, necessitating careful avoidance of these ingredients in equine feeding.

    Disulfides in onions and garlic, such as thiosulfates, can lead to the destruction of red blood cells in horses, ultimately causing severe anemia. This often manifests in symptoms like weakness, lethargy, and pale mucous membranes. If ingested in large quantities, these toxic compounds can also lead to gastrointestinal irritation, colic, and potentially fatal consequences. Due to the potential risks, it’s essential for equine caregivers to completely exclude onions and garlic from their horses’ diets to ensure their well-being.


    Caffeine’s stimulant properties can lead to severe toxicity in horses, making it vital to prevent their exposure to caffeine-containing products or sources.

    When consumed, caffeine can have stimulant effects on a horse’s central nervous and cardiovascular systems, leading to increased heart rate, restlessness, and muscle tremors. Prolonged or excessive exposure to caffeine can result in more severe symptoms such as colic, sweating, and incoordination. The danger lies in the fact that horses metabolize caffeine more slowly compared to humans, intensifying its effects and increasing the risk of toxicity. Given this, it is crucial for horse owners and caretakers to be vigilant and ensure that all feed, supplements, and grooming products are free from caffeine and its derivatives.


    Alcohol consumption can lead to severe toxicity and health complications in horses, necessitating strict measures to prevent their exposure to alcoholic substances.

    Equine alcohol toxicity can result from accidental ingestion of alcoholic beverages or access to fermented grains, leading to profound health implications.

    Toxic effects of alcohol in horses can include depression, lethargy, incoordination, and potentially life-threatening symptoms such as respiratory failure and coma. It’s crucial for horse owners and caretakers to be vigilant in keeping all alcohol-containing products out of reach to safeguard the well-being of these sensitive animals.


    Xylitol, an artificial sweetener, can lead to severe toxicity and metabolic issues in horses, necessitating stringent avoidance of products containing this ingredient.

    The consumption of xylitol by horses can have detrimental effects on their health. When ingested, this artificial sweetener may cause a rapid release of insulin, leading to a sudden drop in blood sugar levels, a condition known as hypoglycemia. Horses are particularly susceptible to xylitol toxicity, and even small amounts can result in serious health complications. Symptoms of xylitol ingestion in horses may include weakness, tremors, seizures, and in severe cases, liver failure. Therefore, it is crucial for horse owners and caretakers to be vigilant in preventing any exposure to xylitol by ensuring that equine products, such as treats, feeds, and supplements, do not contain this harmful ingredient.

    How Much Human Food Should Horses Eat?

    When offering human food to horses, it is crucial to regulate the portions and frequency of consumption, ensuring moderation and balanced dietary management for equine well-being.

    Equine nutrition experts recommend that treats from human food should constitute no more than 10% of a horse’s overall diet. Feeding moderate portions of fruits, vegetables, or small amounts of whole grains as an occasional treat can be a delightful addition to a horse’s diet.

    It’s essential to bear in mind that some human foods, such as sugary snacks or processed treats, can lead to weight gain, metabolic issues, and even dental problems in horses if overfed.

    Keeping track of the treat intake and observing any changes in the horse’s behavior and health can help in gauging the impact of human food treats on their well-being.

    What Are The Benefits Of Feeding Human Foods To Horses?

    Incorporating human foods into a horse’s diet can offer benefits such as dietary variety, nutritional enrichment, and the potential for strengthening the bond between horses and their caretakers.

    Human foods can also provide sensory stimulation for horses, as they may enjoy the different textures and flavors, adding excitement to their meals. Introducing small amounts of nutrient-rich human foods like carrots, apples, and certain grains can help supplement essential nutrients that may be lacking in their standard feed. This can contribute to overall equine health and well-being, and may even aid in reducing the risk of certain health issues.

    What Are The Risks Of Feeding Human Foods To Horses?

    While human foods can offer benefits, there are inherent risks such as toxicity, nutritional imbalance, and potential dietary concerns that necessitate careful consideration when incorporating them into a horse’s diet.

    One primary risk is toxicity, as many human foods contain substances that are harmful or even toxic to horses. Common ingredients such as chocolate, onions, and avocados can pose serious health threats to equines.

    Another consideration is the potential for nutritional imbalance. Human foods may not provide the essential nutrients required for a horse’s well-being, leading to deficiencies or excesses that can negatively impact their health.

    Additionally, potential dietary concerns arise as horses have sensitive digestive systems. Sudden changes in diet, especially from human foods, can cause gastrointestinal issues such as colic or laminitis.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    What human food can horses eat?

    Horses can eat a variety of human foods as treats, including fruits, vegetables, and some grains.

    Can horses eat bananas?

    Yes, horses can eat bananas, but in moderation as too much can cause digestive upset. It is best to cut the banana into small pieces before feeding it to your horse.

    What fruits can horses eat?

    Horses can eat a variety of fruits, including apples, bananas, watermelon, and strawberries. Just make sure to remove any seeds or pits before feeding.

    Can horses eat carrots?

    Yes, carrots are a safe and nutritious treat for horses. They are a good source of vitamins and minerals, and most horses enjoy them.

    What vegetables can horses eat?

    Horses can safely eat a variety of vegetables, including carrots, peas, green beans, and sweet potatoes. It is best to cook or steam them before feeding to your horse.

    Can horses eat bread?

    In small amounts, bread is safe for horses to eat. However, it should not be a staple in their diet as it is high in carbohydrates and can lead to weight gain. Whole grain bread is a better option than white bread.

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